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confirmation (Wikipedia)
A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth.

In Christianity, Confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in Baptism. Those being confirmed are known as confirmands. In some denominations, such as the Anglican Communion and Methodist Churches, confirmation bestows full membership in a local congregation upon the recipient. In others, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Confirmation "renders the bond with the Church more perfect", because, while a baptized person is already a member, "reception of the sacrament of Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace".

Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches view Confirmation as a sacrament. In the East it is conferred immediately after baptism. In the West, this practice is followed when adults are baptized, but in the case of infants not in danger of death it is administered, ordinarily by a bishop, only when the child reaches the age of reason or early adolescence. Among those Catholics who practice teen-aged Confirmation, the practice may be perceived, secondarily, as a "coming of age" rite.

In traditional Protestant denominations, such as the Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist and Reformed Churches, Confirmation is a rite that often includes a profession of faith by an already baptized person. It is also required by most Protestant denominations for full membership in the respective Church, in particular for traditional Protestant churches, in which it is also recognized secondarily as a coming of age ceremony.[citation needed]

Confirmation is not practiced in Baptist, Anabaptist and other groups that teach believer's baptism. Thus, the sacrament or rite of Confirmation is administered to those being received from those aforementioned groups, in addition to those converts from non-Christian religions.

There is an analogous ceremony also called Confirmation in the Jewish religion, which is not to be confused with Bar or Bat Mitzvah. The early Jewish Reformers instituted a ceremony where young Jews who are older than Bar Mitzvah age study both traditional and contemporary sources of Jewish philosophy in order to learn what it means to be Jewish. The age instituted was older than that of Bar Mitzvah because some of these topics were considered too complicated for 13-year-old minds to grasp. Nowadays, Confirmation has gained widespread adherence among congregations affiliated with the Reform movement, but has not gained as much traction in Conservative and Orthodox Jewish groups. The way Confirmation differs from Bar Mitzvah is that Confirmation is considered a more communal confirmation of one's being Jewish, and Bar Mitzvah is more of a personal confirmation of joining that covenant (see below section about Confirmation in Judaism)

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